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CEMS Harvard Referencing Style: Introduction to Referencing

General Notes on Referencing


According to the APA <>, a list of references alphabetically lists all sources cited in the text of a paper. This means that all items contained in the list of references must be cited within the text. 

A bibliography, on the other hand, is far more comprehensive, as it is an alphabetical list of of all materials consulted in addition to those cited in the text.


Two authors (note the word "and" between the names of the first and second authors.

Dent, P. and Jones, R. 1994. Planning at work. London: ABC Publications.

Three or more authors (note the use of the ampersand (&) between the names of the second and third authors.

Cooper, P., Codd, J. & Smith, L. 1998. Research methods for management. London: ABC Publications.


  • If it is the first edition of the book, this is not indicated.
  • the numerical value is in superscript e.g. 2nd ed.
•List the authors’ surnames alphabetically, noting that nothing precedes something:
•John, B precedes Johnstone, A
•Prefixes like Mc and Mac must be used as they are and not all changed to Mac
•Surnames like de la Rey, le Roux, van der Walt are referenced as is and not changed to Rey, de la
•Anonymous works are alphabetized by the first significant word in the title
•Omit articles (the, a)


When a reference is too long and goes over to the next line(s), the lines thereafter must be indented.

Dictionary of Psychology. 2006. Edited by: Colman, A.M. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. Available from <> [Accessed on: 20 February 2007].


Access the following article for an example of a biblioraphy:

Erasmus, Coert & Makina, Daniel. (2014). An Empirical Study of Bank Efficiency in South Africa Using the Standard and Alternative Approaches to Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies. 6. 310-317.


When citing sources where there are no authors the following applies:

  • Replace the author's name with Anon. which is the abbreviation for anonymous

  • Use the title of the work. The title is listed alphabetically in the reference list.


Use n.d. for no date

Jones, DA. n.d. Shadow banking in South Africa. Pretoria: Academic Publishing House


An abbreviation of the Latin expression sine loco (without place) is used.

Naude, W. A. 2015. Banking industry in South Africa. [S.l.]: Academic Publishing House.

Note: The “S” of both sine anno and sine loco is capitalized because it introduces a new element in the bibliography, and they are enclosed in square brackets

In the text reference it is written with a small letter:

…in that regard (Jones [sa]: 10)

List of References


Andersson, T. ed. 2001. Getting started with electronic commerce: proceedings of the  1st International Conference on Electronic Commerce, Geneva, October 2-4, 2001. E-commerce Unlimited.

Barrow, J. ed. 1999.  Cases in services marketing.  New York: McGraw-Hill.

Business Day. 2001.  ‘A test for the taxman’,  Business Day, 22 August. 13.

Collins, J. 1997. Report on visit to international business schools. Report to the Unisa Graduate School of Business Leadership. Unpublished.

Concise Oxford dictionary of current English. 1995. Ed. by Thompson, D.  9th ed. Oxford: Claredon Press.

Cooper, P., Codd, J. & Smith, L. 1998. Research methods for management. London: ABC Publications.

Crow, P. 1994. 'GATT shows progress in Congress'. Oil and Gas Journal, [online], 92(49), 32 (1p) Available: Business Source Premier. [Accessed on: 28 November 2006].

Dent, P. and Jones, R. 1994. Planning at work. London: ABC Publications.

Dictionary of Psychology. 2006. Edited by: Colman, A.M. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. Available from <> [Accessed on: 20 February 2007].

Dlamini, N. 2006. ‘E-commerce trends in retail in South Africa.’ [PowerPoint  Presentation] 4 November.  Business Solutions Inc., Midrand.

Freeman, T. 1998.  Leadership for South African Organisations: study guide for MBL019-L.  Pretoria: University of South Africa.

Heller, F. 1996. ‘Leadership’. In: Warner, M. Ed. International encyclopedia of business & management. Vol 3. London: Routledge. 2541-2549.

How to deal with cultural diversity in the work place. 1999. [Video]. Based on book by Sally WALTON.  Chicago, IL: Jack Wilson and Associates.

International encyclopedia of business & management. 6 vols. 1996. ed. by M Warner.  London: Routledge.

International Monetary Fund. 1977. Balance of payments manual. 4th ed. Washington,DC: International Monetary Fund.

James, T.  IT Project Leader, E-Commerce Solutions Ltd. 2001. Correspondence. 1 September, Midrand.

Jay, P. (  (9 March 2001) Re: Outsourcing supply. E-mail to M. Ndlovu (

Jones, D. 2001. ‘Asmal says life-skills education will be enforced in every school’, Business day.,22 August. 4.

“Julia”. 30 November 2006. E-Commerce set to crash. [Blog entry]. Available from: < [Accessed on:  2 December 2006].

Lasserre, P. 2003. Global Strategic Management [online]. 2nd ed. New York: Palgrave MacMillan. Available from: < >     [Accessed on: 2 November 2006].

Maggs, P. N.  Director, E-Commerce Solutions Ltd. 2001. Personal interview. 27 September, Midrand.

Miller, M. 1999. ‘Trends in e-commerce’, Internet Magazine, [online]. 3(2), 86+. Retrieved December 17, 2000. From InfoTrac database. Available from:<> [Accessed December 17,2000].

Murray, J. 2001. ‘E-commerce, is it that promising?’ PC Week. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Omah, A. 2001. ‘Service excellence in local business’, People Dynamics. Manuscript in press.

Opec countries agree to keep oil output steady. 2001. Business Day, 27 September. 8.

Palmer, A. 1998a. Principles of services marketing. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Palmer, A. 1998b.  Relationship marketing. London: ABC Publications.

Palmer, A. 1999. ‘Services marketing is not new’. In: Berry, J. and Swan, P. Eds, Services marketing, concepts and cases.  New York: McGraw-Hill. 101-120.

Radio 702. 2001. John Robbie show. Off-air recording. 8 March 2001. Audio-tape.

SABC 3. 2000. News at 8. Off-air recording. 9 March 2000. Video.

Shaw, B. 1999. A journey through leadership challenges: interactive exercises. [CD-Rom].

Skyman, D. 2 May 2001. 'Electronic commerce'. E-commerce. [online]. Available from EC. [Accessed on: 30 June 2001].

Smith, J. 1999. 'Outsourcing logistics' [online]. Chicago: Logistics International. Available from:<> [Accessed on: 28 November 1999].                     

Smith, J. 2000.  An investigation of the impact of services marketing on the airline industry. PhD Thesis. University of South Africa.

South Africa.  Central Statistical Service. 1996. Statistical release. PO317. Pretoria: Central Statistical Service.

Spar, D. and Burns, J. 2000. ‘Hitting the wall: Nike and International Labor Practices.’ HBS 700047.  Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing.

Terrill, C.A. 1992. ‘The ten commandments of new service development’, Management Review,  81(2): 24-27.

UNESCO. 1999. General information programme and summary of activities. Paris: Unesco. (PGI-93/WS/22).

University of South Africa. Graduate School of Business Leadership. 1997. Transforming organisations in South Africa: study guide for MBL018-C.. Pretoria.

Wheeler, D. 2001.  Getting to grips with e-supply chain.  In: Andersson, T. ed. Getting started with electronic commerce: proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Electronic Commerce, Geneva, October 2-4, 2001.  E- commerce Unlimited.  121-139.