An in-text citation refers to a reference that you made within the body of your text . This informs the reader that you have used a particular source to assist with formulating your own ideas and writings, and you are thus acknowledging this contribution. Remember that every in-text citation needs a corresponding entry in your reference lists.
The format of in-text citations will depend on the referencing style, for example, Harvard, APA etc. Consult with your supervisor to ensure that you provide the in-text citations in the format required.
The basic format of an in-text citation can be seen in the following diagram:
When an author’s work is cited directly, the page number(s) must be added to the in-text citation:
If you quote directly from a specific book, place the quotation in inverted commas, followed by the reference to the author, with the relevant page numbers, e.g. “In practice services marketing works…” (Palmer 1998:23-24)
CITING WITHOUT A DATE
The term "no date", abbreviated as n.d., is used in the text reference:
…in that regard (Jones, n.d.:10)
IN-TEXT REFERENCING OF AN ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT WITHOUT PAGE NUMBERS
Use the chapter with its number, and add the paragraph number:
(Thompson, 2017: Conclusion, para 2)
If the publication has one author and the author’s name occurs naturally in the sentence, just add the year in brackets.
… Ndlovu (2021) predicts the role of …
Otherwise, put both the name and the year in brackets at the end of the sentence.
… (Ndlovu, 2021).
If you are quoting directly from the publication, the quotation is placed in inverted commas, followed by the author(s) with the relevant page numbers, for example
…” (Ndlovu, 2021: 34-35).
However, the ampersand (&) may not be used when the authors’ names occur naturally in the sentence, i.e. not in brackets.
According to Vaara and Fritsch (2021: 8), they outlined a framework that identifies four very closely linked …
If you cite directly from a publication with two authors, mention both authors and place the quotation in inverted commas, followed by the reference to the authors, with the relevant page numbers.
… and “positive relationship between CSR and financial results or neutral” (Barauskaite & Streimikiene, 2020: 285-286).
… (South Africa. Taxation Laws Amendment Act 20 of 2021).
… (Hoffmann v South African Airways 2017 (1) SA 1 (CC) (hereinafter ‘the Hoffmann case’).
(The importance of diversity in the workplace, 2022)