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CEMS Harvard Referencing Style: Introduction to In-text Citations

In-Text Citations

INTRODUCTION

An in-text citation refers to a reference that you made within the body of your text .  This informs the reader that you have used a particular source to assist with formulating your own ideas and writings,  and you are thus acknowledging this contribution. Remember that every in-text citation needs a corresponding entry in your reference lists. 

The format of in-text citations will depend on the referencing style, for example,  Harvard, APA etc. Consult with your supervisor to ensure that you provide the in-text citations in the format required.

The basic format of an in-text citation can be seen in the following diagram:

 

When an author’s work is cited directly, the page number(s) must be added to the in-text citation:

 

General rules for citing:

  • If the author’s name occurs naturally in the sentence, just add the year in brackets, for example … Ndlovu (2021) predicts the role of ….  
  • Otherwise, put both the name and the year in brackets at the end of the sentence, for example …. (Ndlovu, 2021).
  • If you are quoting directly from the publication, the quotes are in inverted commas, followed by the reference to Ndlovu with the relevant page numbers, for example (Ndlovu, 2021:34-40)
  • If the author published more than one publication in the same year, distinguish between them by adding a, b, c etc. after the date, and ensure that they are all listed in the List of References.

(Ndlovu, 2021a)

(Ndlovu, 2021b)

  • If you quote directly from a specific book, place the quotation in inverted commas, followed by the reference to the author, with the relevant page numbers, e.g. “In practice services marketing works…”  (Palmer 1998:23-24)


 

 

CITING WITHOUT A DATE

The term "no date", abbreviated as n.d., is used in the text reference:

…in that regard (Jones, n.d.:10)


IN-TEXT REFERENCING OF AN ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT WITHOUT PAGE NUMBERS

Use the chapter with its number, and add the paragraph number:

(Thompson, 2017: Conclusion, para 2)

 

 

PUBLICATIONS WITH ONE AUTHOR

If the publication has one author and the author’s name occurs naturally in the sentence, just add the year in brackets.

Example:

… Ndlovu (2021) predicts the role of …

Otherwise, put both the name and the year in brackets at the end of the sentence.

Example:

… (Ndlovu, 2021).

If you are quoting directly from the publication, the quotation is placed in inverted commas, followed by the author(s) with the relevant page numbers, for example


Example:

…” (Ndlovu, 2021: 34-35).

 

PUBLICATIONS WITH TWO AUTHORS OR EDITORS

Use the ampersand (&) sign when the authors are placed in brackets as well as in the list of references.

Example:

… framework that identifies four very closely linked levels of analysis (Vaara & Fritsch, 2021: 8)

However, the ampersand (&) may not be used when the authors’ names occur naturally in the sentence, i.e. not in brackets.

Example:

According to Vaara and Fritsch (2021: 8), they outlined a framework that identifies four very closely linked …

If you cite directly from a publication with two authors, mention both authors and place the quotation in inverted commas, followed by the reference to the authors, with the relevant page numbers.

Example:

… and “positive relationship between CSR and financial results or neutral” (Barauskaite & Streimikiene, 2020: 285-286).

PUBLICATIONS WITH BETWEEN THREE OR FIVE AUTHORS

All the authors are mentioned the first time you cite them, and the ampersand (&) is used before the last author’s surname, e.g. (Ivana, Zaharie & Metz, 2021).

For subsequent citations of this source, only the first author followed by et al(with a full stop after al.) is used, e.g. (Ivana et al., 2021: 43–44). Please note that there should be no comma in front of et al.

PUBLICATIONS WITH SIX OR MORE AUTHORS

If there are six or more authors, et al. is used from the outset.

If you cite directly from the publication, include page numbers

Example: (Sityata et al., 2021: 13-14).

PUBLICATIONS WITH AN AUTHOR, OR MORE THAN ONE AUTHOR WITH MORE THAN ONE PUBLICATION IN THE SAME YEAR

Distinguish between the publications by adding a, b, c, etc. after the date. The a, b and c are allocated according to the alphabetical order of the title following the year. Ensure that they are all listed in the list of references, for example

… (Sharma & Kumar, 2018a)
… (Sharma & Kumar, 2018b)

… If both are used in one reference (Sharma & Kumar 2019a; 2019b)

  • chapter in a book – use the author of the chapter for your citation and not the editor of the book.
     
  • report – use the name of the corporate author or international organisation as the author. In cases where the corporate body is both the author and the publisher of the document, the name is not repeated.
     
  • government publication – refer to it as (Country. Government department or body, year). Add the page numbers if you quote from the text.

    (South Africa. Statistics South Africa, 2019: ii–iv).

     
  • statute or act – use the short title for in-text citations. The title of the act can be followed by its number and year (as relevant to the act, not the year of publication).
     

… (South Africa. Taxation Laws Amendment Act 20 of 2021).

  • court case – include full details and define how you are going to cite it after that
     

… (Hoffmann v South African Airways 2017 (1) SA 1 (CC) (hereinafter ‘the Hoffmann case’).
 

  • video – use the title of the video.

(The importance of diversity in the workplace, 2022)

  • podcast – use the name of the presenter of the podcast.
     
  • direct quote from an interview or e-mail – use the name of the person with whom you have communicated and the type of communication to which you are referring.
    (Maggs, 2021)

     
  • website and no date is given – can be cited as (Smith, n.d.).
     
  • blog where the author is a pseudonym – cite the pseudonym as the author using double quotation marks (“Julia”, 2017).