The College of Economic and Management Sciences (CEMS) at Unisa uses the Harvard referencing method. This method has been internationally accepted and standardised, and is a widely accepted referencing method in many higher education institutions worldwide.
It is very important that you use the contents of this guide when writing your assignments, research proposals and research reports to add in-text citations where you use another author’s work or idea, and to compile a list of cited references at the end of your document. You will be penalised if you do not use the correct referencing technique and if your list of references is not of a high academic standard.
An author’s idea is acknowledged by adding an in-text citation where you refer to such author’s work and by including the complete reference in the list of references at the end of your document. Sources are acknowledged whether you quote directly from it, summarise ideas from it, or base an argument on it.
Works are cited for the following reasons:
A line that identifies the source of a statement, and occurs in the body of a paper. It is also called an in-text citation, for example
(Author(s), publication year:pages)
A citation style shows the format you need to use when presenting your in-text citations and bibliographies There are a number of citation styles, e.g. APA, Harvard, Chicago etc. and which one is used can depend on the academic discipline. They all convey the same information, but they present it differently.
HARVARD REFERENCING STYLE
This method involves name-and-date references in the text, with an alphabetically arranged list of sources
Unisa uses the Augmented Harvard Reference Style
It is the prerogative of the promoter/ supervisor to prescribe the style to be used
Always consult with your supervisor first
This presentation is based on the Bibliographic Style & Reference Techniques by Marlene Burger
LIST OF REFERENCES
A list of references is an alphabetical list of all the sources that you cited in the text of your paper. This means that all the publications cited in your work must be contained in the list of references.
The College of Economic and Management Sciences requires a single list of references at the end of the written work that provides accurate details of all the sources cited. It should provide enough information to allow your reader to identify and locate the source that you used and distinguish it from other versions of the same material. An example of a List of References has been included at the end of this guide.
Paraphrasing is when you make use of someone else’s ideas, but put them into your own words, and according to your personal style of writing (thus avoiding plagiarism)
Generally, it is better to paraphrase than to quote
Ensure that you formulate others’ ideas in such a way that it blends in nicely with your own writing style
Do not misrepresent the other person’s ideas in order to suit your purposes
As with quotations, acknowledge the source of your ideas using the prescribed referencing method
Refers to a specific source that an author has written
When you quote the exact words of an author
Use inverted commas (“ “) directly before and after the quoted text
Acknowledge the source of the quotation in line with the referencing method prescribed by your department or subject field
"... describes how services marketing works in practice" (Palmer, 1998: 23)
Quotations can not be an entire paragraph that was copied and pasted word for word. A quotation is a short excerpt surrounded by your own words.
This refers to a document consulted in your research. It should include all the bibliographic details needed to trace the document, for example
Author’s Surname, Initials. Year of publication. Title of book (in italics). Edition. Place of publication: Publisher.
Palmer, A. 1998. Principles of services marketing. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw- Hill
Refers to material which is written as an interpretation, criticism or research about an author or subject
A list of references is an alphabetical list of all the sources that you have cited in the text of your work. This means that all the publications cited in your work must be contained in the list of references.
A bibliography, on the other hand, is far more comprehensive, as it is an alphabetical list of all materials consulted, in addition to those cited in the text.
CEMS requires a single list of references at the end of the written work that provides accurate details of all the sources cited. It should provide enough information to allow your reader to identify and locate the source that you have used and to distinguish it from other versions of the same material. An example of a list of references is included at the end of this guide.
General rules of referencing
Barauskaite, G. & Streimikiene, D. 2021. Corporate social responsibility and financial performance of companies: The puzzle of concepts, definitions and assessment methods. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 28: 278-287 doi: 10.1002/csr.2048
BHP Billiton. 2017. BHP Billiton sustainability report for the year ended 30 June 2017. Available at: https://www.bhp.com/-/media/documents/investors/annual- reports/2017/bhpsustainabilityreport2017.pdf? [Accessed: 2 May 2018].
Broermann, S. 2020. Trade-led growth: A path to sustainable development in sub-Saharan Africa. In S.F. Churchill (Ed.). Moving from the millennium to the sustainable development goals: Lessons and recommendations. Singapore: Palgrave Macmillan, 119153.
Cant, M.C. & Van Heerden, C.H. 2020. Marketing management: A South African perspective. 4th edition. Claremont: Juta.
City of Melbourne. 2018. Buildings with name, age, size, accessibility, and bicycle facilities. Census of Land Use and Employment [Dataset]. Available at: https://data.melbourne.vic.gov.au/Property-Planning/Buildings-with-name-age-size-accessibility-and-bic/pmhb-s6pn [Accessed: 7 January 2019].
Cokins, G., Pohlen, T. & Klammer, T. 2021. Supply chain costing and performance management. 2nd edition. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Collins, J. 2017. Report on visit to international business schools. Unpublished report to the Unisa Graduate School of Business Leadership.
Curran, S. 2019. Yesterday in Parliament 18th June [Podcast], 18 June. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p02tys33 [Accessed: 19 June 2019].
Dahlgaard-Park, S.M. & Dahlgaard, J.J. (Eds.). 2021. Key challenges and opportunities of quality, sustainability and innovation in the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Singapore: World Scientific.
Dlamini, N. 2021. E-commerce trends in retail in South Africa [PowerPoint presentation], 4 November. Business Solutions, Midrand.
Durie, A.D. 2017. Marketing strategies of textile companies: The case of selected medium and large Ethiopian textile companies. Unpublished DBL thesis. University of South Africa, Pretoria.
Fredericks, F. 2012. Vinyl cleaning tool. UK Intellectual Property Office, patent no. GB2468906. Available at: http://www.ipo.gov.uk/p/find-publication [Accessed: 5 June 2013].
Fry, S. 2019. Stephen Fry [Twitter], 2 August. Available at: http://www.twitter.com/stephenfry [Accessed: 18 December 2019].
Goode, W. 2020. Dictionary of trade policy terms. Cambridge University Press. Available at: https://0-doi-org.oasis.unisa.ac.za/10.1017/9781108913638 [Accessed: 3 March 2021].
Hoffmann v South African Airways 2017 (1) SA 1 (CC).
HoffsTech. 2022. The importance of diversity in the workplace [YouTube video]. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pn6WzHw7gHY [Accessed: 2 March 2022].
Hughes, O.E. 2021. The art of strategy. New York, NY: Routledge.
Hurwitz v Taylor 2019 TPD 81.
IMF (International Monetary Fund). 2022. IMF Committee on Balance of Payments Statistics: Annual report 2021. Washington, DC.
Ivana, D., Zaharie, M.A., Metz, D. & Dragan, M. 2021. Digital talent management: Insights from the information technology and communication industry. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
“Julia”. 2017. E-commerce set to crash [Blog entry], 30 November. Available at: http://www.burstyourbubble.com/ecommerce/ [Accessed: 2 December 2018].
Kreuter, T., Scavarda, L.F. & Thomé, A.M.T. 2021. Empirical and theoretical perspectives in sales and operations planning. Review of Managerial Science. [In press].
Maggs, P.N. 2021. Director, E-Commerce Solutions [Personal interview], 27 September, Midrand.
Mamaregane, F. 2022. Accounting for managers: Study guide for PBA4807. Midrand: University of South Africa.
Mathu, K.M. & Scheepers, C. 2016. Leading change towards sustainable green coal mining. Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies. Available at: https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/EEMCS-01-2016-0007 [Accessed: 7 June 2017].
Metal and Allied Workers Union and another v A Mauchle (Pty) Ltd t/a Precision Tools 2021 (1) ILJ 227 (IC) 152.
Milanzi, S.A. 2021. Inclusive growth, innovation and economic development in South Africa: An empirical analysis. PhD dissertation. University of Limpopo. Available at: http://hdl.handle.net/10386/3596 [Accessed: 9 January 2022].
Mintzberg, H. 1979. The basic parts of organisations – Mintzberg’s model [Diagram]. In G.A. Cole. 2004. Management theory and practice. 6th ed. London: Thomson, 186.
Moraka, W. 2022. Access to water a human right that needs more focus. Cape Argus, 28 March: 6.
Naughton, S. 2018. Seminar 7: Transforming organisations: strategy, structure & design. Lecture notes. Organisation Change Management BMO6624. Victoria University, delivered 21 May 2018.
Ndlovu, T. 2021. Efficiency, productivity and returns to scale economies in South Africa’s healthcare insurance market. Studies in Economics and Econometrics, 45(3): 34-39.
Odiyo, J.O., Bikam, P.B. & Chikwizira, J. (Eds.). 2022. Green economy in the transport sector. Bern: Springer.
Okharedia, A.A. 2020. The role of servant leadership and spirituality in promoting efficiency and productivity in the workplace. Pharos Journal of Theology, 101: a10. Available at: https://www.pharosjot.com/uploads/7/1/6/3/7163688/article_10_vol_101__2020__unisa.pdf [Accessed: 23 July 2021].
Pehrsson, A. (Ed.). 2021. Competitive international strategy: Key implementation issues. New York, NY: Routledge.
Pillay, A.S. & Pillay, C.A. 2018. The beneficiation of waste as part of the implementation of the circular economy in South Africa. In S.K. Ghosh (Ed.). Waste management as economic industry towards circular economy: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Sustainable Waste Management, Vijayawada, 22-24 November. Singapore: Springer, 17-35. Available at: https://0-link-springer-com.oasis.unisa.ac.za/chapter/10.1007/978-981-15-1620-7_3 [Accessed: 9 January 2021].
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Rogerson, J.M. 2021. Tourism business responses to South Africa’s COVID-19 pandemic emergency. GeoJournal of Tourism & Geosites, 35(2): 338-347.
Salehi, M. & Arianpoor, A. 2021. The relationship among financial and non-financial aspects of business sustainability performance: Evidence from Iranian panel data. The TQM Journal, 33(6): 1447-1468. doi: 10:1108/TQM-08-2020-0175
Sharma, G. & Kumar, H. 2018a. Exploring the possibilities of utility models patent regime for grassroots innovations in India. Journal of Intellectual Property Rights, 23(2/3): 119-130.
Sharma, G. & Kumar, H. 2018b. Intellectual property rights and informal sector innovations. Journal of World Intellectual Property, 21(3/4): 123-139.
Sityata, I., Botha, L. & Dubihlela, J. 2021. Risk management practices by South African universities: An annual report disclosure analysis. Journal of Risk and Financial Management, 14(1): 1-22 doi: 10.3390/jrfm14050195
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Soliman, K.S. (Ed.). 2019. Ethical culture development in family-owned businesses: Proceedings of the 34th International Business Information Management Association (IBIMA) Conference, Madrid, 13–14 November. Madrid: International Business Information Management Association.
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Spar, D. & Burns, J. 2017. Hitting the wall: Nike and International Labor Practices. HBS 700047. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing.
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Stats SA (Statistics South Africa). 2020. The Marginalised Groups Series 6: The Social Profile of Youth 2014-2020. Pretoria.
S v Maseko 2020 (1) SACR 107 (A).
The Star. 2022. December power outage in Cape Town’s CBD explained: This is how and why it happened, 7 April: 9.
Thompson, S. 2021. Green and sustainable finance. Kogan Page. Available at: https://0-ebookcentral-proquest-com.oasis.unisa.ac.za/lib/unisa1-ebooks/detail.action?docID=6483565 [Accessed: 7 April 2022].
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Unisa (University of South Africa). 2022. Value-based management: Study guide for MBA5901. Midrand: Graduate School of Business Leadership.
Vaara, E. & Fritsch, L. 2021. Strategy as language and communication: Theoretical and methodological advances and avenues for the future in strategy process and practice research. Strategic Management Journal, 43(6): 1-12. doi: 10.1002/smj.3360
Wessels, J.S. 2021. Reflective public administration [Facebook], 1 July. Available at: https://web.facebook.com/ReflectivePACKM [Accessed: 18 June 2021].
Wheeler, D. 2017. Getting to grips with the e-supply chain. In T. Andersson (Ed.). Getting started with electronic commerce: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Electronic Commerce, Geneva, 2–4 October. New York, NY: Association for Computing Machinery, 121-139.
Wiid, J.A. & Cant, M.C. 2021. The future growth potential of township SMMEs: An African perspective. Journal of Contemporary Management, 18(1): 1-23.
Woods, C., Fernee, C., Browne, M., Zakrzewski, S. & Dickinson, A. 2018. The potential of statistical shape modelling for geometric morphometric analysis of human teeth in archaeological research [Dataset]. University of Southampton Institutional Repository. doi: 10.5258/
REFERENCING SECONDARY SOURCES
You may wish to quote a piece of work that has been referred to in something you have read. This is called ‘secondary referencing’ because you have not read the original piece of work. In other words, you are relying on the author you are reading to give a fair reflection of the contents of the original work. Wherever possible, it is important to read the original work, but this may be difficult in some instances. If you must refer to a secondary reference, your text should make it clear that you have not read the original.
This is only acceptable under extreme circumstances. It is important to consult the original material to ensure that you understand the context of what was discussed.
Research used by Smith (2000) regarding services marketing, shows that the indicators formulated by Grant (1994) in his PhD thesis entitled Services marketing in transportation (Dunhill University) are applicable to the airline industry.
The work by Smith (2000) will be included in your bibliography, as this is where you read about Grant’s research. However, the work by Grant (1994) is not included. You cannot include details about the original study, as you have not consulted it.
A process project might consist of a number of stages including experimentation and production (Rondinelli 1983, cited in Potts, 2002:37). List the source you actually read, i.e. Potts.
Please consult your research supervisor with regard to the plagiarism detection tools at the University
At Unisa, Turnitin is used.
Turnitin is an internet based anti-plagiarism detection software that is aimed at promoting quality academic writing within learning Institutions. This allows students to develop quality writing skills as it facilitates rich, significant feedback on their submitted work. Hence in this process, they are able to improve their academic writing.
Instructors/Lecturers require students to submit their written assignments to Turnitin. The system then checks the submitted document for non-originality (possible plagiarism) by comparing submitted papers to several databases/repositories on the world wide web. Instructors/Lecturers are then able to monitor a student's similarity index.
Make use of the Turnitin website for more information.
Queries regarding Turnitin
All queries regarding the use of Turnitin can also be emailed to Turnitin@unisa.ac.za
Please find the attached Turnitin guide and the Turnitin form for your information.
The completed form must be sent to: firstname.lastname@example.org if you are not able to access the Turnitin.
Kindly note that the University does not support private email addresses. You may ONLY use your myLife email account for Turnitin at Unisa. You can claim your myLife e-mail at : http://www.unisa.ac.za/sites/myunisa/default/Claim-UNISA-Login