Please note that there are many variations to the Harvard referencing style. Please discuss your referencing style with your supervisor before you start, as it is the prerogative of your supervisor to advise you on the preferred referencing style . Learn as much as possible about the correct method of referencing and apply it consistently in your work.
Important things to remember
Pay particular attention to the following
The examples in this guide do not necessarily refer to actual published texts
This guide does not include all types of texts
Acknowledgement: This presentation is based on the Bibliographic Style & Reference Techniques by Marlene Burger.
A line that identifies the source of a statement, and occurs in the body of a paper. It is also called an in-text citation, for example
(Author(s), publication year:pages)
A citation style shows the format you need to use when presenting your in-text citations and bibliographies There are a number of citation styles, e.g. APA, Harvard, Chicago etc. and which one is used can depend on the academic discipline. They all convey the same information, but they present it differently.
HARVARD REFERENCING STYLE
This method involves name-and-date references in the text, with an alphabetically arranged list of sources
Unisa uses the Augmented Harvard Reference Style
It is the prerogative of the promoter/ supervisor to prescribe the style to be used
Always consult with your supervisor first
This presentation is based on the Bibliographic Style & Reference Techniques by Marlene Burger
LIST OF REFERENCES
Alphabetically lists all references cited in the text of a paper at the end of a paper. This means that all items contained in the list of references must be cited within the text
Paraphrasing is when you make use of someone else’s ideas, but put them into your own words, and according to your personal style of writing (thus avoiding plagiarism)
Generally, it is better to paraphrase than to quote
Ensure that you formulate others’ ideas in such a way that it blends in nicely with your own writing style
Do not misrepresent the other person’s ideas in order to suit your purposes
As with quotations, acknowledge the source of your ideas using the prescribed referencing method
Refers to a specific source that an author has written
When you quote the exact words of an author
Use inverted commas (“ “) directly before and after the quoted text
Acknowledge the source of the quotation in line with the referencing method prescribed by your department or subject field
"... describes how services marketing works in practice" (Palmer, 1998: 23)
Quotations can not be an entire paragraph that was copied and pasted word for word. A quotation is a short excerpt surrounded by your own words.
This refers to a document consulted in your research. It should include all the bibliographic details needed to trace the document, for example
Author’s Surname, Initials. Year of publication. Title of book (in italics). Edition. Place of publication: Publisher.
Palmer, A. 1998. Principles of services marketing. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw- Hill
Refers to material which is written as an interpretation, criticism or research about an author or subject
REFERENCING SECONDARY SOURCES
Secondary referencing occurs when you wish to quote a source that appears in something you have read, but you have not had access to the original source. You have to rely on the author who you are reading to give a fair reflection of the contents of the original work.
Wherever possible, it is important to read the original work, but this may be difficult in some instances. If you still have to refer to a secondary reference, your references must clearly indicate that while you have read the secondary source, you have not read the original source.
This is only acceptable under extreme circumstances. It is important to consult the original material to ensure that you understand the context of what was discussed.
Research used by Smith (2000) regarding services marketing, shows that the indicators formulated by Grant (1994) in his PhD thesis entitled Services marketing in transportation (Dunhill University) are applicable to the airline industry.
The work by Smith (2000) will be included in your bibliography, as this is where you read about Grant’s research. However, the work by Grant (1994) is not included. You cannot include details about the original study, as you have not consulted it.
A process project might consist of a number of stages including experimentation and production (Rondinelli 1983, cited in Potts, 2002:37). List the source you actually read, i.e. Potts.
Each time you paraphrase or quote ideas and information taken from another author's work, you must acknowledge the exact source of this information as it is the intellectual property of the author that is protected by copyright. https://techterms.com/definition/copyright
This applies regardless of whether the ideas came from a book, journal article, newspaper, a personal interview or document that you downloaded from the Internet, and regardless of whether or not your work will be published.
The reasons why references are given include the following:
WHAT IS PLAGIARISM?
The acknowledgement of another author's work is called a reference, and the failure to provide references discredits the integrity of the research and exposes the writer to a charge of plagiarism.
Plagiarism is when you present another person’s ideas as your own, without properly acknowledging the source of the ideas. It is regarded as a criminal offense.
You are plagiarising if you are:
HOW TO AVOID PLAGIARISM
Whenever you use a fact, phrase, chart or quotation from someone else in your work, you must acknowledge the original source
Keep careful notes of every source you consult, so that no sources are used without proper acknowledgment
Never copy and paste anything from the Internet without also copying the URL where you found it to ensure that you can provide a full citation for the source
Do not use the work of fellow students
Consider using Mendeley as a personal database for all your references
THE UNISA LIBRARY GUIDELINES FOR AVOIDING PLAGIARISM
WRITING FOR ACADEMIC INTEGRITY
Please refer to the following Unisa policy document:
It is now common practice for the Unisa College of Economic and Management Sciences to run dissertations/ theses through the Turnitin software before final submission, in order to check for plagiarism.