Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

CEMS Harvard Referencing Style: Standards and Patents

Standards and patents

The citation order, capitalisation and punctuation are as follows:


Name of the authorising body. Year. Number and title of standard. Place of publication: Publisher.


Example of a print standard:

British Standards Institute. 2015. BS ISO 14001: Environmental management systems. Requirements with guidance for use. London.


Example of an electronic standard taken from a database:

SABS (South African Bureau of Standards). 2013. Standards – overview. Available at: [Accessed: 17 March 2017].


Inventor(s). Year of publication. Title. Authorising organisation, patent number. Available at: URL [Accessed: day month year].



Fredericks, F. 2012. Vinyl cleaning tool. UK Intellectual Property Office, patent no. GB2468906. Available at: [Accessed: 5 June 2013].