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CEMS Harvard Referencing Style: Images or Diagrams

Images, Tables, Diagrams etc

  • Any image, diagram, table, etc. needs a caption as well as an in-text citation to the original work.
  • If the image, diagram, table, etc. being cited belongs to the author of the book, cite the book as normal, but include the page number as if you were performing a direct quote.
  • If the image, diagram table, etc. being cited does not belong to the author of the book, then you will need to include additional information.
  • The citation order, capitalisation and punctuation are as follows:

Author’s surname, initial. Year. Title of the work – image title [Material type]. In author’s/editor’s initial surname. Year. Title. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher, page number.



Mintzberg, H. 1979. The basic parts of organisations – Mintzberg’s model [Diagram]. In G.A. Cole. 2004. Management theory and practice. 6th edition. London: Thomson, 186.



A caption should always include:

  • The word ‘Figure’ or ‘Table’ (with a capital letter).
  • A number (from 1, in numerical order).
  • In the case of a thesis or dissertation, it should refer to the specific chapter and the number of the figure in that specific chapter, e.g. Figure 3.5 refers to the fifth figure in Chapter 3.
  • A title (caption) for the figure or table.
  • An in-text citation for the reference of the source, which includes the author(s), date and page number of the source, i.e. (Saunders et al., 2007:102).
  • The number and caption always appear below the image, figure, etc. In the case of a table, however, the number and caption appear above the table.
  • Figures and/or tables are always referred to by their full number (e.g. Figure 2.5) in the text.





Figure 2.6: The research onion (Saunders et al.., 2007:102)

where 2 indicates the number of the chapter, and 6 the number of the figure in Chapter 2.